"Not only did Americans score poorly compared to many international competitors, the findings reinforced just how large the gap is between the nation's high- and low-skilled workers and how hard it is to move ahead when your parents haven't.
In both reading and math, for example, those with college-educated parents did better than those whose parents did not complete high school.
The median hourly wage of workers scoring on the highest level in literacy on the test is more than 60 percent higher than for workers scoring at the lowest level, and those with low literacy skills were more than twice as likely to be unemployed.
This test could suggest students leaving high school without certain basic skills aren't obtaining them later on the job or in an education program.
'There is a race between man and machine here. The question here is always: Are you a worker for whom technology makes it possible to do a better job or are you a worker that the technology can replace?" he said. For those without the most basic skills, he said, the answer will be merciless and has the potential to extend into future generations. Learning is highly correlated with parents' education level.
'If you want to avoid having an underclass — a large group of people who are basically unemployable — this educational system is absolutely key,' Kirkegaard said."